Лекции - Проблемы художественного перевода

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Antonomasia is the use of a proper name for a common one. Antonomasia may be metaphoric, i. e. based upon a similarity between two things: "The Giaconda smile". (A. Huxley) It is metonymic when the name of a person stands, for instance, for the thing he has created, as in: "Where one man would treasure a single Degas, Renoir, Cezanne, Mr. Ferraro bought wholesale." (G. Greene)

The appeal to imagination in a metonymy (synecdoche and metonymic antonomasia) is believed to be much weaker than that contained in a metaphor or a simile. Nevertheless, the former, too, is a powerful means of poetic expression. Its force lies in the intense conciseness with which it can pick out one particular aspect of a complex thing (or idea) making the thing itself easier to com­prehend. E. g. He has married money. He is the Napoleon of crime, etc.

Epithet is an attributive characterization of a person, thing or phenomenon. It is, as a rule, simple in form. In the majority of cases it consists of one word: adjective or adverb, modifying respectively nouns or verbs, e. g. "The glow of an angry sunset." (Ch. Dickens) "Carrying himself straight and soldierly." (E. Heming­way) Sometimes epithets may be expressed by nouns, mostly in of-phrases: "They had the spirit of modesty." (J. Steinbeck) or compounds — equivalents of whole phrases: "Brian feeling a quiet I-told-you-so satisfaction at the unalterable laws." (A. Sillitoe)

There is one other type of epithet, as in: "Denis raised the enormous bulwark of the Times against the possible assault of Mr. Scogan." (A. Huxley) or in: "This Burns of a city." (Th. Dreiser) In such phrases the relation between the modifier and the modified is of a peculiar nature. What in essence is the modified stands in the position of the modifier: "of the Times", "of a city". The change in the position gives the modified noun high emotional colour­ing. Such epithets are, in a way, compressed similes (the bulwark of the Times — the Times was like a bulwark; the Burns of a city — the city was like Burns).

Most manuals on style warn their readers to distinguish between a poetic epithet and a simple adjective. The former is said to create an image, while the latter indicates one of the inherent properties of the thing spoken about. But, writes R. Jacobson, when in 1919 the Moscow Lin­guistic Circle discussed how to define and delimit the range of epitheta ornantia, V. Mayakovski rebuked them by saying that for him any adjective while in poetry was thereby a poetic epithet.1 Indeed, a dividing line between the two is often hard to draw. Thus, for instance, in the word-group "young Tom" — "young" may merely define the age of one who is called Tom. In such a case it is a simple adjective. Hut the attribute "young" may also express the author's emotional attitude to Tom in which case "young" is an epithet.

Authors whose writing is not obvious, who refrain from direct expression of their emotional attitude often resort to marginal cases. In the title of G. Greene's story "Special Duties" the word "special" might be considered to define the duties performed, in which case it is a pure adjective, a sort of term, devoid of any connotation, cf. the Russian особые поручения». But on reading the story one comes to realize that what seemed at first sight to be a mere term is, in fact, brimful of a subtle implica­tion. It conveys the author's ironic attitude to the duties Miss Saunders, the secretary, was employed to perform.

Epithets on the whole show purely individual emotional attitude of the speaker towards the object spoken of. It does not define a property of the object spoken of; it de­scribes the object as it appears to the speaker. -

An epithet may be based on an analogy when certain properties of one class of things are reflected upon a thing of another class. This is a metaphoric epithet, e. g. "The submarine laughter was swelling, rising, ready to break the surface of silence." (A. Huxley), or: "The dawn with silver-sandalled feet crept like a frightened girl." (O. Wilde)

But in most cases epithets are not based on analogy — they just merely denote the speaker's attitude to what is being spoken about: "To fulfil this condition was hope­lessly out of my power." (B. Shaw) "The new and very serious and Hyper-educated generation." (J. Joice)

There are also the so-called conventional (standing) epithets, a sort of literary cliché. They mostly occur in folklore or in the works of individual writers based on or imitating folklore: my true love, merry old linuhimi, merry month of May, wide world, etc.

Allusion is a reference to specific places, persons, " literary characters or historical events that, by some association, have come to stand for a certain thing or an idea: The frequently resorted to sources are mythology and the Bible, e. g. "We are met here as the guests of — what shall I call them? — the Three Graces of the Dublin musical world. The table burst into applause and laughter at this allusion." (J. Joyce) The full impact of an allu­sion, the perception of the idea it is employed to suggest comes to that reader who is aware of the origin, i. e. the original sense of the word, phrase, place or character allud­ed to. Thus, for instance, in I he quoted example the cause of applause and laughter at the .speaker's allusion to "the Three Graces of the Dublin musical world" who , in this case are three elderly spinsters is perceived by him who knows Hint the three Graces in Roman mythol­ogy were goddesses nl beauty, joy and female charm. Allusions may function within the literary text as meta­phoric epithets, metaphors proper, similes, periphrases. Quotations embedded in the text are. a type of allusion.

Zeugma is a figure of speech which consists of one main element and a number of adjuncts. The adjuncts represent semantically different word-classes thus differ­ing in the type and degree of cohesion with the main ele­ment. E. g. "He had a good taste for wine and whiskey and an emergency bell in his bedroom." (G. Greene), where the verb "had" simultaneously governs such two unrelated sequences as "a good taste for", and "an emergency bell". The contrast between the syntactic identity of adjuncts and their semantic incompatibility is a means of creating dif­ferent commutative effects (humorous, ironic, etc.)

E.g. "Either you or your head must be off." (L. Carroll) "Juan was a bachelor of arts, and parts, and hearts." (G. Byron)

Oxymoron is a kind of antithesis in that is also based upon a contrast between two words. But contrary to the antithesis where contrastive words are contraposed (in parallel constructions), in the oxymoron contrastive. Words may be juxtaposed as modifier and modified, r. g. "The enchanting tale, the tale of pleasing woe." (J. Keats) "Oh, the sweetness of the pain." (J. Keats) "The glories of their particular France so nicely rotting." (S. Lewis) "Part­ing is such sweet sorrow." (W. Shakespeare) "She was filled with a glad terror." (A. Myrer) "The unreached Para­dise of our despair." (G. Byron) "The wordy silence tumbled her." (O. Wilde)

Also as a verb + a noun governed by the verb, r, g. "He had lived a very long time with death and was a little detached." (E. Hemingway); or: "Doomed lo liberty." (O. .Henry)

The juxtaposition of two contrastive words is not in essence illogical for with the help of it the speaker empha­sizes the complex nature of the thing spoken about; both elements of the pair bring out some feature or quality of the thing or phenomenon spoken about. E.g. "'Fortunately,' he said 'we can share our pleasures. We are not always condemned to be happy alone.'" (A. Huxley) In the majority of cases the modifier conveys the author's or the character's personal attitude towards what is modified, e. g. sweet sorrow; glad terror; nicely rolling.

In an original oxymoron, as could be seen in Ihe above given examples, the denotative meaning correlates with the connotative meaning and the latter does not contradict but in fact helps lo grasp the denotation more readily. Frequently repealed oxymorons become trite and lexicalized. Some of them are nothing other than intensifiers: awfully nice, mighty small, frightfully happy. Original oxymorons do not often occur- in texts but their scarcity does not speak of their inexpressiveness. In fact, as already stated, they help to reveal the inner contradictions that underlie objective phenomena; they are considered to be a special form of paradox.

Paradox is also based on contrast, being a statement contradictory to what is accepted as a self-evident or proverbial truth. E. g. "I think that life is far too impor­tant a thing ever to talk seriously about it." (0. Wilde) "My experience is that as soon as people are old enough to know better, they don't know anything at all." (O. Wilde) "A smock so artistic and modern and novel that it might have been worn by her grandmother," (S. Lewis) "I never like giving information to the police. It saves them trouble." (G. Greene). "Wine costs money, blood costs nothing." (B. Shaw)

The appeal of a paradox lies in the fact that, however contradictory it may seem to be to the accepted maxim, it contains, nevertheless, a certain grain of truth, which makes it an excellent vehicle of satire. Indeed, it is a device much favoured by many English and American satirists.

Paradox can be considered a figure of speech with cer­tain reservations, since the aesthetic principle that under­lies it; i. e. contrast has divers linguistic manifestations.

Pun (paronomasia, a play on words) is a figure of speech emerging as an effect created by words similar or identical4 in their sound form and contrastive or incompat­ible in meaning.

The sound form played upon may be either a polyse­mantic word, as in: "Her nose was sharp, but not so sharp as her voice or, the suspiciousness with which she faced Martin." (S. Lewis) "... Were it not here apparent that thou art heir apparent." (W. Shakespeare); or complete/ partial homonyms, as in: "So sound as things that are hol­low." (W. Shakespeare); or: "The Importance of Being Ear­nest" (O. Wilde); or: "But what trade ail thou? Answer me directly. A trade, sir, that I hope, I may use with a safe conscience which is Indeed, sir, a mender of bad soles." (W. Shakespeare). The meanings inherent in the sound com­plex may be either .simultaneously realized (see the exam­ple with the words sound, earnest, sole) or kept distinct interwoven with one another in a decorative fashion, ns in: "Hath Romeo slain himself? Say thou but 'aye' and that bare vowel T shall poison more than the death-darting eye of cockatrice." (W. Shakespeare)

However playful is the effect of pun,, however intricate and sudden is the merging of senses in one sound complex, in a truly talented work this unit of poetic speech shares equally with others in the expression of the author's mes­sage; it is a vehicle of the author's thought and not a mere decoration. Consider, for instance, the following: "Oh, nowadays we are all of us so hard up that the only pleasant things to pay are compliments. They are the only things we can pay." (O. Wilde)

Let me be cruel, not unnatural:

I will speak daggers to her, but use none;

My tongue .and soul in this be hypocrites. (W. Shakespeare)

The figures of speech called understatement, litotes, and overstatement are also based on contrast: the contrast is between the real and the expressed values of the object.

Understatement is an expression of an idea in an excessively restrained language, <>. g. "He knows a thing or two"; "Mr. Ferraro thought at first that it was the warmth of the day that had caused her to be so inefficiently clothed ..." (G. Greene)

Overstatement (hyperbole) as the word itself suggests is an expression of an idea in an exceedingly exag­gerate language, e. g. "That was fiercely annoying." (A. Cop-pard) "Their flat was a fourth floor one and there was — O, fifteen thousand stairs!" (A. Coppard) "I'd cross the world to find you a pin." (A. Coppard)

Whereas various forms of litotes and understatement are an expression of a restrained, non-committal or subtly ironic tone of writing, supra-average cases of overstatement, on the contrary, are characteristic of an obviously emotion­al, if not altogether impassioned, manner of representation.


ЛЕКЦИЯ 3 (2 часа)

^ TYPES OF FIGURES OF SPEECH

Simile is the most rudimentary form of trope. It can be defined as a device based upon an analogy between two things, which are discovered to possess some feature in common otherwise being entirely dissimilar. For instance, G. Greene's simile "darkness when once it fell, fell like a stone" is based on the discovered similarity between "darkness" and "stone" the latter suggesting suddenness, quickness and danger of the fallen darkness.

Other examples. (Lady Henry) "Looking like a bird of paradise that had been out all night in the rain (flitted out of the room)." (O. Wilde) "Makes marriage vows as false as dicer's oaths." (W. Shakespeare)

The formal elements of a simile are: 1) a pair of objects (e. g. darkness + stone; Lady Henry + a bird of paradise; marriage vows -\- dicer's oaths); 2) a connective (like, as, as if, as though, such as, etc.). Not only conjunctions and adverbs but notional words (nouns, verbs, prepositional phrases) as well as affixes (suffixes----wise, -tike) and com­ma — the substitute of a conjunction — can have the func­tion of a connective in a simile; e. g. "She seemed nothing more than a doll." (A. Huxley) "He resembled a professor in a five-elm college." (S. Lewis)"... clouds of tawny dust ... flung themselves table-cloth-wise among the tops of parched trees." (R. Kipling) "M'Nab's back, through the front win­dow, was stonily impressive, the back of a statue." (A. Hux­ley) "... with ape-like fury, he was trampling his victim under foot." (R. Stevenson)

All the above-mentioned formal elements make the simile an easily recognizable unit of poetic speech.


Periphrasis is a unit of pot-lie speech which both names and describes. We speak of a periphrasis when we have the name of a person or a tiling substituted by a descriptive phrase. E. g. the better (fair) sex women, man in the street an ordinary person, etc. It is when a periphrasis is represented by a metonymy or a metaphor that we refer it to the class of tropes. E. g. "His studio is probably full of the mule evidences of his failure." (M. Jo­seph), where "mute evidences of his failure" stands for "paintings". The same thing, i. e. "paintings" is described as "his unappreciated efforts". Another example: "'For one thing', answered Richard rankling a little, 'it (money) won't buy one into the exclusive circles of society.' 'Olml won't it?' thundered the champion of the root of evil.

'You tell me where your exclusive circles would be if the first Astor hadn't had the money to pay for his steerage passage over?'" (O. Henry), where the "root of evil" is a met­aphoric substitute for the word "money".

A periphrasis is euphemistic when it stands as a sub­stitute for a concept or thing which the author finds too unpleasant or is too reticent to name directly. Here is how E. Hemingway speaks of death in his "The Snows of Kili­manjaro": "Since the gangrene started in his right leg he had no pain and with the pain the horror had gone... For this, that now was coming, he had very little curiosity. For years it obsessed him; but now it meant nothing in itself." Instead of saying that Nick killed a troublesome mosquito with a lighted match E. Hemingway says: "The mosquito made a satisfactory hiss in the flame."

Periphrases, as all the other tropes, can be divided into original creations of individual authors (see examples above) and trite ones many of which have become part of the general lexicon: the better sex; the seven-hilled city (Rome); organs of vision (eyes); the language of Racine (the French language).

Another unit of poetic speech based on analogy will be mentioned in conclusion of our survey.


Climax (gradation) is another unit of poetic speech based on the recurrence of a certain syntactic pattern. In each recurrent sequence the lexical unit is either emotion­ally stronger or logically more important. E. g "Walls — palaces — half-cities, have been reared." (G. Byron) "Janet Spence's parlour-maid was ... ugly on purpose ... malignantly, criminally ugly." (A. Huxley)

Sometimes lexical units, when merely enumerated, cannot be considered as more emotional or less emotional, more important or less important, but as soon as they are arranged in a certain sequence they acquire a graded qual­ity * as in: "He lived — he breathed---he moved — he felt." (G. Byron) "She rose — she sprung — she clung to his "embrace." (G.Byron) A lexical unit may seem to be emotion­ally stronger by the mere fact that it is placed last in a se­quence of syntactically identical units, e. g. "The thoughts went rioting through his brain, proud, joyful, tender, valor­ous. "(J. Joyce) "Just then the hyena stopped whimpering in the night and started to make a strange, human, almost cry­ing sound." (E. Hemingway) A very subtle effect is produced by a gradation which is based on the recurrence of the same lexical morpheme represented by different grammar clas­ses, e. g. "He was sleepy. He felt sleep coming. He curled up under the blanket and went to sleep." (E. Hemingway).

Anticlimax is the reverse of climax. In this figure of speech emotion or logical- importance accu­mulates only to be unexpectedly broken and brought down. The sudden reversal usually brings forth a humorous or ironic effect, as in the following: "She felt that she did not really know these people, that she would never know them; she wanted to go on seeing them, being with them, and living with rapture in their workaday world. But she did not do this." (A. Coppard).


Suspense (retardation) is a deliberate delay in the completion of the expressed thought. What has been delayed is the loading task of the utterance and the reader awaits the completion of the utterance with an ever increasing tension. A suspense is achieved by a repeated.' occurrence' of phrases or clauses expressing condition, suppo­sition, time and the like, all of which hold back the con­clusion of the utterance. A classical example of a skilful use of suspense is R. Kipling's famous poem "If". The title itself suggests suspense. The poem consists of eight stanzas and it is only in the last two lines of the last, eighth stanza, that the sentence and the thought are completed. Here is another example oi suspense: J. Keats’s masterpiece "When I Have Fears".

When I have fears that I may cease to be

Before my pen has glean'd my teeming brain, Before high-piled books, in charactery,

Hold like rich garners the full ripen'd grain; When 1 behold, upon the night's starr'd face,

Huge cloudy symbols of a high romance, And think that I may never live to trace

Their shadows, with the magic hand of chance; And when I feel, fair creature of an hour,

That I shall never look upon thee more, Never have relish in the faery power

Of unreflecting love; — then on the shore Of the wide world I stand alone, and think

Till love and fame to nothingness do sink.


Sometimes the conclusion oi the suspended utterance goes contrary to the aroused expectations, a device often practiced tor humorous effects, as in: "The little boy, whose heart was too full for utterance, chewing a piece of licorice stick he had bought with a cent stolen iron his good and pious aunt, with sobs plainly audible and with great glob­ules of water running down his cheeks, glided silently down the marble steps of the bank." (M. Twain)


Antithesis is a phrase, a sentence or a group of such in which a thing (or a concept) is measured against, or contrasted to, its opposite. E. g. "Too brief for our passion, too long for our peace." (G. Byron) " he hadn't gone to school, he'd met the scholars; if lie hadn't gone into the house, he had knocked at the door." (S. O'Casey) "Their wrath how deadly! but their friendship sure." (G. Byron) "Immortal, though no more; though fallen, great!" (G.Byron)

As may be seen from the examples given above antithesis emerges as a result of a contraposition of two or more words, the contraposed words being either antonyms, as in: brief long, or contrastive in some of their meaning-com­ponents as in: wrath friendship. Sometimes words gener­ally not contrastive in meaning acquire this quality due to their contraposition as, for instance, the words gone met.

Parallelism is the organizing axis of antithesis. Some­times, though, parallelism is substituted by a common point of reference and alliteration, as in the proverb "All that glitters is not gold”, where the antithesis between glitter not gold is achieved by a common point of reference — glittering — brought out by the alliteration of "gilt", "gold".1

In poetry whole pieces may be built up entirely on a string of antitheses, as, for example, in W. Shakespeare's well-known madrigal.

Crabbed age and youth cannot live together Youth is full of pleasure, age is full of cure Youth like summer morn, age like winter wealliw Youth like summer brave, age like winter bare


Litotes, a specific form of understatement, consists in the use of a negative for the contrary, as in: "I le had not been unhappy all day." (E. Hemingway) "The figures of these men and women straggled past the flower-bed with a curiously irregular movement not unlike that of the white and blue butterflies." (V. Woolf) "God has made man in his image, and it was not unreasonable for Mr. Ferraro to return the compliment ..." (G. Greene)

Connotative effects produced by litotes as well as by / understatements are varied. It may be a characteristic j instance of an author's generally restrained tone of writing I as is the case with E. Hemingway, or a way of rendering subtle irony as could be seen in the quoted examples from \ G. Greene's story, etc.

Quite a number of figures of speech are based upon the principle of recurrence. Recurrent may be elements of differ­ent linguistic layers: lexical, syntactic, morphological, and phonetic. Some figures of speech, as will be shown below, emerge as a result of a simultaneous interaction of several principles of poetic expression, i. e. the principle of con­trast + recurrence; recurrence + analogy; recurrence + in complete representation, etc.

Parallelism as a figure of speech is based upon a recurrence of syntactically identical sequences which lexically are completely or partially different. E. g. "She was a good servant, she walked softly, she was a determined woman, she walked precisely." (G. Greene) "They were all three from Milan, and one of them was to be a law­yer, and one was to be a painter, and one had intended i to be a soldier..." (E. Hemingway). Parallelism strongly affects the rhythmical organization of an utterance and gives it a special emphasis, so it is imminent in oratorical art as well as in impassioned poetry:

You've hit no traitor on the hip,

You've dashed no cup from perjured lip,

You've never turned the wrong to right,

You've been a coward in the fight. (Ch. Mackay)

The elements of the juxtaposed parts due to their juxtapo­sition merge to create one single image.1 (See the above quoted examples.)

Parallelism should not be mixed up with repeti­tion. As the word "repetition" itself suggests, this unit of poetic speech is based upon a repeated occurrence of one and the same word or word-group. E. g. "You cannot, sir, take from me anything I will more willingly part withal except my life, except my life, except my life." (W. Shake­speare) "I wouldn't mind him if he wasn't so conceited and didn't bore me, and bore me, and bore me." (E. Hemingway)

Depending upon the position a repeated unit occupies in the utterance there are distinguished four types of repe­tition.

1) Anaphora — repetition of the first word or word-group in several successive sentences, clauses or phrases. E. g. "I love your hills, and I love your dales. And I love your flocks a-bleating." (J. Keats) "Justice waited behind a wooden counter in a high stool; it wore a heavy moustache; it was kindly and had six children...; it wasn't really interested in Philip, but it pretended to be, it wrote the address down and sent a constable to fetch a glass of milk." (G. Greene)

2) Epiphora — repetition of the final word or word-group. E. g. "I wake up and I'm alone, and I walk round Warlley and I'm alone, and I talk with people and I'm alone." (J. Braine)

3) Anadiplosis (catch repetition) — repetition at the beginning of the ensuing phrase, clause or sentence of a word of a word-group that has occurred in the initial, the middle or the final position of the preceding word-se­quence.

E. g. But Brutus says he was ambitious;

And Brutus is an honorable man. (W. Shakespeare)

"... there lived a bad man who kept a bad pig. He was a bad man because he laughed too much at the wrong times and at the wrong people. He laughed at the good brothers of M— when they came to the door for a bit of whiskey or a piece of silver, and he laughed all "the time." (J. Stein­beck)

4) Framing, or ring repetition — repetition of the same unit at the beginning and at the end of the same sentence, stanza, or paragraph.

How -beautiful is the rain!

After the dust and heat,

In the broad and fiery street

In the narrow lane

How beautiful is the rain!

............. . . -. (H. W. Longfellow)


Polysyndeton is an insistent repetition of a con­nective between words, phrases or clauses in an utterance, e. g. "They were all three from Milan and one of them was to be a lawyer, and one was to be a painter, and one had intended to be a soldier, and after we were finished with the machines, sometimes we walked back together to the Cafe Cova." (E. Hemingway).


Asyndeton, on the contrary, is a deliberate avoid­ance of connectives, e. g. "He never tired of their (pictures) presence; they represented a substantial saving in death-duties." (G. Greene) Both these devices, though each other's opposites, are equal in expressiveness. The omis­sion of a connective as well as its supra-average occur­rence may be suggestive in a variety of ways. Thus, the repeated "and" in the above quoted sentence from E. He­mingway's story "In Another Country" suggests and empha­sizes the fact that the fates of the three men from Milan were equally tragic: none of them had turned out to be what they had intended to be, while the omission of the connective "for", or "because" in the example from (i. Greene's story "Special Duties" is a way of emphasizing I he fact that it was the material benefit that he (Mr. Ferraro) valued most in the pictures.

Both these devices are widely used in contemporary narrative prose. In the works of some writers their occurren­ces are quite prominent, as, for instance, in the works of E. Hemingway. In fact, E. Hemingway is reputed as master of endowing these devices with exceptionally suggestive overtones.

^ Climax (gradation) is another unit of poetic speech based on the recurrence of a certain syntactic pattern. In each recurrent sequence the lexical unit is either emotion­ally stronger or logically more important. E. g "Walls — palaces — half-cities, have been reared." (G. Byron) "Janet Spence's parlour-maid was ... ugly on purpose ... malignantly, criminally ugly." (A. Huxley)

Sometimes lexical units, when merely enumerated, cannot be considered as more emotional or less emotional, more important or less important, but as soon as they are arranged in a certain sequence they acquire a graded qual­ity x as in: "He lived — he breathed — he moved — he felt." (G. Byron) "She rose — she sprung — she clung to his embrace." (G. Byron) A lexical unit may seem to be emotion­ally stronger by the mere fact that it is placed last in a se­quence of syntactically identical units, e. g. "The thoughts went rioting through his brain, proud, joyful, tender, valor­ous. "(J. Joyce) "Just then the hyena stopped whimpering in the night and started to make a strange, human, almost cry­ing sound." (E. Hemingway) A very subtle effect is produced by a gradation which is based on the recurrence of the same lexical morpheme represented by different grammar clas­ses, e. g. "He was sleepy. He felt sleep coming. He curled up under the blanket and went to sleep." (E. Hemingway)

Anticlimax is the reverse of climax. In this figure of speech emotion or logical- importance accu­mulates only to be unexpectedly broken and brought down. The sudden reversal usually brings forth a humorous or ironic effect, as in the following: "She felt that she did not really know these people, that she would never know them; she wanted to go on seeing them, being with them, and living with rapture in their workaday world. But she did not do this." (A. Coppard).


Suspense (retardation) is a deliberate delay in the completion of the expressed thought. What has been delayed is the loading task of the utterance and the reader awaits the completion of the utterance with an ever increasing tension. A suspense is achieved by a repeated.' occurrence' of phrases or clauses expressing condition, suppo­sition, time and the like, all of which hold back the con­clusion of the utterance. A classical example of a skilful use of suspense is R. Kipling's famous poem "If". The title itself suggests suspense. The poem consists of eight stanzas and it is only in the last two lines of the last, eighth stanza, that the sentence and the thought are completed. Here is another example oi suspense: J. Keats’s masterpiece "When I Have Fears".

When I have fears that I may cease to be

Before my pen has glean'd my teeming brain, Before high-piled books, in charactery,

Hold like rich garners the full ripen'd grain; When 1 behold, upon the night's starr'd face,

Huge cloudy symbols of a high romance, And think that I may never live to trace

Their shadows, with the magic hand of chance; And when I feel, fair creature of an hour,

That I shall never look upon thee more, Never have relish in the faery power

Of unreflecting love; — then on the shore Of the wide world I stand alone, and think

Till love and fame to nothingness do sink.


Sometimes the conclusion oi the suspended utterance goes contrary to the aroused expectations, a device often practiced tor humorous effects, as in: "The little boy, whose heart was too full for utterance, chewing a piece of licorice stick he had bought with a cent stolen iron his good and pious aunt, with sobs plainly audible and with great glob­ules of water running down his cheeks, glided silently down the marble steps of the bank." (M. Twain)

Zeugma is a figure of speech which consists of one main element and a number of adjuncts. The adjuncts represent semantically different word-classes thus differ­ing in the type and degree of cohesion with the main ele­ment. E. g. "He had a good taste for wine and whiskey and an emergency bell in his bedroom." (G. Greene), where the verb "had" simultaneously governs such two unrelated sequences as "a good taste for", and "an emergency bell". The contrast between the syntactic identity of adjuncts and their semantic incompatibility is a means of creating dif­ferent connotative effects (humorous, ironic, etc.) E. g. "Either you or your head must be off." (L. Carroll) "Juan was a bachelor of arts, and parts, and hearts." (G. Byron)

The graphic indication of an aposiopesis is, as a rule, a dash or dots.

Ellipsis is an intentional omission from an utter­ance of one or more words, e. g. "If teenage baby-sitters typical, there's hope yet."1 "Then the electric lights came on, and it was pleasant along the streets looking in the windows." (E. Hemingway)

The difference between ellipsis and aposiopesis lies in the fact that whereas in the former the omitted words make the utterance only grammatically incomplete the meaning of the omitted words being easy to-'surmise from the utterance itself (e. g. Been home? — instead of: Have you been home?; Hungry? — instead of: Are you hungry?) in the latter it is the context of the situation alone that helps surmise the meaning of the unuttered words, while grammat­ically an aposiopesis may or may not be-complete, e. g. "If everything had been different, Fenella might have got the giggles ..." is a grammatically complete utterance; but: "By the way, my name is Alden, if you'd care ..." — a grammatically incomplete utterance.


ЛЕКЦИЯ 4 (2 часа)

^ TRANSFORMATION IN THE PROCESS OF TRANSLATION


The student, who followed the preceding pages with attention, could not have failed to notice that some sense units of the source language retained their sense and structure in the target language unchanged, whereas others had retained only their content/meaning unchanged, but altered or completely changed their original/source language form. The kind of major and minor alterations in the struc­tural form of language units performed with the aim of achieving faith­fulness in translation are referred to as translator's transformations. They are carried out either because of the incompatibility of the tar­get language means of expression, which makes the transplanta­tion of some source language units to it impossible, or in order to retain the style of the source language passage and thus maintain the expressiveness of the source language sense units. Naturally, not all sense units need to be structurally transformed in the pro­cess of translation, a considerable number of them are also trans­planted to the target language in the form, meaning and structure of the original, i.e., unchanged or little changed. Among these, as could be seen on the foregoing chapters, are the following classes of lan­guage/sense units:

1) Most of genuine internationalisms (words, word-groups, sen­tences), some idiomatic expressions, culturally biased notions. For example: begonia бегонія, computerization комп’ютерізація, mar-keting маркетинг, electron електрон, theorem теорема, gentleman джентльмен, chemical reaction хімічна реакція, democratic system демократична система, finita la commedia фініта ля комедія (ділу кінець), veni, vidi, v/cприйшов, побачив, переміг, etc.

2) Many loan internationalisms which maintain in the target language the same meaning and often the same structural form but have a different phonetic structure (sounding). Cf.: agreement/con­cord {gram) узгодження, adjoinment/juxtaposition прилягання, word-formation cnoвотвip, the complex sentence складнопідрядне речення, subordination підрядний зв’язок, longitude (geogr.) довгота, latitude широта, horse power кінська сила, standard of living життєвий рівень, etc. 3) Almost all proper nouns of various subclasses (names of people, family names and geographical names, etc.)

Some proper names and family names, as well as geographi­cal names, names of companies/corporations, firms, titles of news­papers, magazines/journals, as has been shown already in Chapter II, do not always completely retain their source language form in the target language. These and many other proper nouns acquire in the target language a somewhat different sounding and additional explication (cf. американська газета), which often extend their structure as com­pared with that in the source language (cf. Reuters Інформаційне агенство Великої Британії «Рейтер»). As a result, there is not al­ways the same structural «dimension» (because of transformation) of the source language units in the target language, where they are partly transformed, as a rule.

A considerable number of various different proper nouns do not maintain their form or structure due to the historic.tradition or be­cause of the lack of the corresponding sounds in the target language. Cf.: Варшава Warsaw. The lingual (sounding) structure of these and some other geographical names somewhat differs from that in the source language, because Zaporizhya, Kharkiv or Khrushch do not fully re­flect their authentic Ukrainian sounding. But since the English lan­guage has no [г, и, ц, ц’, х, р, дз’] sounds/phonemes and the Ukrai­nian language has no [d, r, h] and other sounds, the spelling forms like Tsarenko for Царенко faithfully turned in either of these two languages. Such and the like (or more complicated) alterations and changes con­stantly take place in the process of translation both at word level and at syntactic level. Hence, from what was shortly shown on the ex­amples above, one can draw an irrefutable conclusion that translation of sense units at the language level, i.e., at the level they belong to in the source language, represents nothing else than a process of con­stant transformations. The most regular if not the most frequent of these are the following two:

1) «inner» or implicit transformations taking place at the lexi­cal/semantic level of the target language as compared with the corre­sponding source language units;

2) «outer» or explicit transformations causing some alterations in the target language as compared with the structure of the corre­sponding sense units of the source language units.

A vivid illustration of «inner» transformation is realized in genu­ine internationalisms through their synonymous or polysemantic mean­ings. For example, the noun icon apart from its direct Ukrainian mean­ing ікона may have in some context also the meanings зображення, портрет, статуя. Any of the last three forms of the word ікона represents an implicit/inner transformation of icon. Similarly with the noun idea which may mean apart from its genuine international sense ідея also думка, задум, гадка. When realised in its faithful transla­tion through any of these three last meanings, it exemplifies an inner/ implicit translators' transformation.

Similar «deviations» from the direct and main meaning may be observed in many more translated English genuine internationalisms. For example: idiomatic ідіоматичний/фразеологічний but also властивий/характерний, притаманний, специфічний.. (Cf. idiom­atic English англійський мова з характерними їй рисами, властивостями, but not англійський текст, що складається з ідіоматичних виразів); illumination ілюмінація, освітлення and also пояснення/оздоблення (рукопису, книжки); illustration ілюстрація, малюнок and also пояснення, приклад.

Sometimes the meaning («inner form») of an internationalism or any other language unit may be absolutely unexpected for an unex­perienced translator or interpreter. Cf.: imitation 1. імітація; 2. наслідування and сурогат, заміна, замінник. Cf.: imitation coffee замінник кави, ерзац-кава. Therefore, inner or implicit transformations disclose the semantic po­tential of the source language units in the target language. The outer/ explicit transformation is performed in the process of translation prac­tically on any type of the source language sense unit; already the change of the Roman type (шрифт) for the Ukrainian or Arabic one presents an explicit or outer transformation (cf. Львів Lviv, Чоп Chop). A kind of combined explicit and implicit transformation may some­times take place too. Thus, the proper name John, for example, may have three outer/contextual explicit realizations of its implicit mean­ings in Ukrainian: 1. Джон as in Джон Буль, Джон Кітс; 2. Іван as in Pope John Paul II папа Іван Павло Другий; 3. Іоанн as in King John король Іоанн I, John the Baptist Іоанн Хреститель.

Apart from the notionals many functionals may undergo inner/ implicit transformations in the process of their translation as well. For example, the word yet may realize its lexical potential as follows: ad­verb (need you go yer? Тобі вже треба йти?); conjunction (though young yet experienced хоч і молодий, але/проте досвідчений); the word noivwhich may be adverb (he is here now/); noun (he is there by now Він уже там на цей час); conjunction (we may start, now the work is over Ми можемо вирушати, оскільки робота вже закінчена). Even the func­tional word the has two different realizations: 1. that of the grammatical determiner (definite article) and that of a particle as in the sooner the better чим швидше, тим краще. Inner transformations, therefore, may be performed on most sense units.

Outer/explicit transformations may sometimes change the struc­tural form of the sense unit under translation. Thus, the noun the Orkneys becomes a word-group Оркнейські острови and the Hebrides becomes Гебридські острови, whereas Labrador becomes півострів Лабрадор, and vice versa: some Ukrainian and English word-groups, proper names are transformed in the target language into single words: Ладозьке озеро - Ladoga, Онезьке озеро - Onega, Уральські гори - the Urals, the Antarctic Continent – Антарктика, the Artctic Re­gion - Арктика, etc.

A peculiar type of outer transformation is observed at the pho­netic/phonological level, when conveying different types of proper names, internationalisms and some lexical units designating specifi­cally national (culturally-biased) elements of the source language. The outer transformation of the source language units in this case finds its expression only in adopting their spelling and sounding forms to the corresponding target language phonetic/phonological system, which usually differs from that of the source language. For example: acous­tics [e'ku:stiks] акустика, assembly [e'sembli] асамблея, ceremony ['serimeni] церемонія, discussion [dis'kAJn] дискусія, etc.

A great number of phonetic/phonological transformations of the kind had been performed in the course of our history of translation. As a result, different types of various proper and other nouns have been already adopted by our language both directly and through mediating languages (Polish or Russian).

In the process of this adoption many different proper names of people and geographical names have acquired in Ukrainian a partly transformed phonetic/phonological i.e. outer structural form. Cf.: Ire­land [aialsnd] Ірландія, Maine [mein] Мен (Штат Мен), Ulster [Alsta] Ольстер, Thessaly ['Sesali] Фессалія, Thesalonica [8es3l3'nai:k3] Салоніки, Фесалоніки, Rwanda [ru:'anda] Руанда, etc. Others ac­quired a unified outer form to express different notions: Algeria [aerd3i3ri3] Алжир (країна), Algiers [ael'd3i3z] Алжир (столиця), Tu­nisia Туніс (країна), Tunis Туніс (столиця).

The observant reader could not have missed to notice that the outer forms of some of the above-given nouns were not everywhere linguistically justified, as their outer presentation contradicts the lat­est rule of Romanization of Ukrainian proper names and the rule of Ukrainization of foreign proper names respectively. In accordance with these rules the U.S. state of Maine, should be Мейн, Ulster should be Альстер, Алстер, and Thessalia, Thesalonica - Тессалія and Тесалоніка. Nevertheless, the outer form of these and many other nouns still remains in their traditional presentation, which was in some period of the past introduced in a wrong translators' transcription, cf.: Athens Афіни instead of Атени (as терапевт), etc.

A lot of other language units have either completely or partly changed their outer form according to the requirements of the target language. Cf.: arcuate аркоподібний, bachelor бакалавр, charter хартія, defile продефілювати, therapeutic терапевтичний, etc. Many loan internationalisms, on the other hand, maintain their inner and outerform in Ukrainian. Cf.: case відмінок, tense form часова форма, syntactic relations синтаксичні відношення, syntactic connection синтаксичний зв’язок, etc.

The outer form of many language units of the source language may, naturally, differ from its structural presentation in the target lan­guage. Thus, the sense of several simple words may be expressed through word-groups: advance робити успіх, drive просуватись уперед, quantify визначати кількість/встановлювати кількість; зарибити to put young fish into the pond, збити to knock down/to knock down together, перемерзати/перемерзнути to get chilled, to be nipped by the frost.

Compound words on the other hand may 1) maintain their outer form/structure in the target language: 1) easy-going добродушний, first-rate першорядний, fireproof вогнетривкий, free­thinker вільнодумець; 2) they may be transformed into semantically corresponding word-groups: dew-fall випадання роси, bed-fast прикутий до ліжка (хворобою), spotlight прожектор для підсвічування, squaw-man (Amer.) білий/одружений з індіанкою; 3) they may turn in Ukrai­nian into simple words: ear-rings сережки, dress-coat фрак, mother-in-law свекруха/теща, ink-pot чорнильниця, operating-room операційна, son-in-law зять, glass-house теплиця/оранжерея, go-ahead заповзятливий, etc.

Similar outer (structural) and inner (lexico-semantic) transforma­tions are often resorted to when rendering the meaning of specific no­tions of national lexicon, namely: 1) when a single-word notion of the source language is translated by means of a single word (when the notions are internationalisms): mister, miss, lady, lord, barter, etc., містер, міс, леді, лорд, бартер, тощо. 2) When a word-group notion is conveyed through a common word: little Mary (jocul.) шлунок, Lord Harry чорт/чортяка, the outward man одежа (людини), forever and a day назавжди/навіки, to turn one's way зникнути (втекти). 3) when a word-group structure of a specific source language notion is rendered through a sentence structure: Nosy Porker людина/той, що втручається в чужі справи; Lazy Susan кругла, велика таця, що обертається (із зікусками); doctor Fell людина, що викликає до себе антипатію; the Centennial State штат Колорадо, який увійшов до складу США 1876р. в сторіччя проголошення незалежності США; K-ration (milit. Amer.) індивідуальний військовий пайок, що складається виключно з консервів. Very often, the structural (outer) forms of some sense units may also coincide. Thus, the word-group structures of the source language are not changed in the target language: straight А «кругле» пять (оцінка), London particular (colloq.) густий лондонський туман, sane and sound (jocul.) живий і здоровий, in one's birthday suit Qocul.) «в Адамовій одежі» (голий), the Sunflower state (colloq. American) соняшниковий штат (Канзас), etc. But complete transformations are often performed when rendering the meaning of idiomatic expressions, especially of those based on specific notions of the national lexicon. Cf.: the Dutch have captured Holland це всі знають, це всім відомо (пор. «відкрив Америку»); Queen Ann is dead це вже старе/це вже чули; the boot is on the other leg це зовсім не так, усе якраз навпаки; or in Ukrainian: курям на сміх for cats and dogs to laugh at, у нього (неї) всі кози в золоті he/she presents things much better than they in reality are, he/she bounces too much boasts or: pretends to have some­thing in abundance, etc.

All these outer transformations were prearranged by the se­mantic aims, i.e., they were used to express as fully and faithfully as possible the sense of the source language units in the target lan­guage. The translator here is mostly free to deliberately choose any sense unit of any structural form in order to convey faithfully the meaning of the source language unit. Thus, when translating the word trifle as a unit of the English culturally biased lexicon the translator is free to choose deliberately any of the three possible equivalents: 1) солодка страва; 2) солодкі бісквіти; 3) солодкі бісквіти, просочені вином (часом із варенням). The choice of this or that Ukrainian equivalent transform among these three is also conditioned by the personal pref­erence of this or that equivalent and by the context requiring corre­spondingly a more or less extended information of the reader about this or that English specific national notion.


^ Grammatically and Stylistically Prearranged Transformations


Apart from the semantically conditioned outer transformations, a bulk of sense units of the source language can be faithfully trans­lated into the target language only through their structurally trans­formed semantic equivalents. Such kinds of transformations usually become necessary because of the difference in the means of expres­sion in the target language. They are mainly employed in the following cases: 1) when translating antonymically; 2) when rendering the mean­ing of most passive constructions, and 3) when translating sentences with an inverted order of words.

Antonymic translation, as was already mentioned, requires a) an obligatory substitution of an affirmative in sense and structure source language unit for a semantically corresponding negative in struc-ture sense unit of the target language:


«For the thousandth time I've «Тисячний раз тобі кажу, не втручайся

told you to keep your nose out of ти в цю справу» / Будь подалі від цієї

the business». (J.London) справи.

Fair words fat few. (Proverb) Гарні слова не нагодують.


This proverb may also have some other antonymic versions, which faithfully convey its meaning via an explicit form in Ukrainian: Від гарних слів їсти не перехочеться/гарними словаси голод не проженеш (не вгамуєш).

b) A reverse transformation of negative in structure sense units of the source language into semantically equivalent affirmative in struc­ture sense units in the target language is no less frequent in both languages either:

^ In reality, of course, the doc- Насправді ж лікар має тільки

tor hasn't the least idea туманне уявлення

about what is wrong. (Cronin) про цю хворобу (шахтарів).

«Can't I have a little peace?» «Ви можете дати мені спокій?»


When stylistically required, the transformation may sometimes be avoided, as in the first sentence above: Насправді ж лікар не має навіть найменшого уявлення про хворобу.

The choice of the form of expression/transformation usually rests with the translator only, who,takes into account the contextual envi­ronment of each sense unit which is to be translated. As a result, there may sometimes be different explicit forms of realization of sense units in the target language, as can be seen from the given sentences in the exercise below.


^ Stylistically/ Subjectively Predetermined Transformations


In many a case transformations of sense units are performed for the sake of achieving a fuller expressiveness. Thus, in the sen­tence «Just remember you are working for Doctor Page.» (Cronin) the underlined part may have two semantically equivalent variants: 1. «To ж памятійте», що ви працюєте на лікаря Пейджа», або «Не забувайте, що ви працюєте на лікаря Пейджа». The second variant, however, is somewhat stronger since it implies threat. To achieve more expres­siveness, the translator may change the outer and inner form of the sense unit in the target language, as in the sentence «We have stacked piles of brickbats under the corners of the piano box to keep the floor of it dry.» (Caldwell) 1. Щоб утримувати підлогу сухою, ми попідкладали битої цегли під кути ящика з-під піанино; the latter variant is certainly more concrete here.

Stylistically/subjectively predetermined is always the choice of the inner (content) form of a sense unit in the target language. Cf.: I feel well. (Hemingway) Я почуваюся непогано (добре). A shell fell close. (Ibid.) Неподалік/поруч вибухнув снаряд. In reality, however, any transformation is aimed at a more exact (and more faithful) ren­dering of the source language units into the target language.


ЛИТЕРАТУРА

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